Álava, Guipúzcoa y Vizcaya en los siglos XIII a XV: de los valles a las provincias

The political history of the Late Medieval period offers peculiar characteristics reference to other Hispanic monarchies. Governed by French dynasties between 1234 and 1512, Navarre acquires .European. appearances, both in the concept of power asin administrative uses, in its foreign affairs and dynastic strategies. The society and the economy follow standards of imbalance, crisis and renovation that are common to the late medieval Europe. It is, also, the most productive period in terms of both artistic and written production. Iparralde is articulated in three units, two under English sovereignty, Soule and Labourd, and the Lower Navarre or Ultrapuertos in the Navarran area of influence. The three share the same social and economic bases, the anxiety of the nobility and a common fate: at the end of the Middle Ages, they were annexed to the French kingdom, while Navarre was incorporated into Castille.